Perkara utama yang mendasari pencegahan jenayah adalah memberikan tanggapan yang kukuh bahawa terdapat kawalan yang ketat. Pada asasnya, ini bertepatan dengan teori tingkap pecah (broken window theory), yang menyatakan bahawa apabila masalah kecil diselesaikan dengan cepat, ia dapat mengelakkannya daripada berulang dan mengurangkan risiko masalah tersebut melarat menjadi masalah besar.
The way people use the Internet today creates a great demand for very high bandwidth: More and more workers are telecommuting. Consumers watch multiple HDTV channels, often on several TVs in the same household at the same time. They upload and download multimedia files and use bandwidth-hungry peer-to-peer services. They play online games that demand high speeds and immediate reactivity. Web 2.0-based communities and hosted services such as social networking sites and wikis are pervasive, fostering interactivity, collaboration and data-sharing while generating a need for capacity. Bringing optical fiber to every home is the definitive response to such demands for greater bandwidth.
How does it work?
GPON has been called “elegant” for its ability to share bandwidth dynamically on a single optical fiber. Like any shared medium, GPON provides burst mode transmission with statistical usage capabilities. This enables dynamic control and sharing of upstream and downstream bandwidth using committed and excess information rate (CIR and EIR) parameters. Users can be assured of receiving their committed bandwidth under peak demand conditions, and of receiving superior service when network utilization is low. While subscribers rarely require sustained rates of 100 Mb/s each, bursting beyond this to the full line rate of a PON system (about 1.25 Gb/s upstream or 2.5 Gb/s downstream in the case of GPON) is easily enabled using the right subscriber interface. This allows a GPON to be used for many years even if subscribers have a regular need to transmit beyond an engineered guaranteed limit of 100 Mb/s.
GPON was developed with the support of the FSAN (Full Service Access Network) Group and the ITU (International Telecommunication Union). These organizations bring the major stakeholders in the telecoms industry together to define common specifications, ensuring full interworking between OLTs and ONTs. The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) has also defined a PON standard, called Ethernet PON or EPON. The EPON standard was launched earlier than GPON and has been deployed successfully. IEEE specs are however restricted to the lower optical and media access layers of networks, and full interoperability for EPON must therefore be managed in a specific case-by-case way at every implementation. Additionally, EPON runs at only 1 Gb/s, upstream as well as downstream, providing a lower bandwidth than GPON. These factors make EPON a less attractive technology choice for providers making FTTH investment decisions today.
Bringing Fiber to the Home: The Benefits
One way of providing fiber to the home is through a Gigabit Passive Optical Network, or GPON (pronounced ‘djee-pon’). GPON is a point-to-multipoint access mechanism. Its main characteristic is the use of passive splitters in the fiber distribution network, enabling one single feeding fiber from the provider’s central office to serve multiple homes and small businesses.
GPON has a downstream capacity of 2.488 Gb/s and an upstream capacity of 1.244 Gbp/s that is shared among users. Encryption is used to keep each user’s data secured and private from other users. Although there are other technologies that could provide fiber to the home, passive optical networks (PONs) like GPON are generally considered the strongest candidate for widespread deployments.